(L Richards) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

David McKay, babe and Aston Martin DB3S, Chevron Hotel, St Kilda Road, Melbourne 1958… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The event is the ‘Smiths Motor Convention’ which by the look of it is a motor industry jolly aimed at the trade rather than retail punters. Those amongst you who were attendees can fill us in. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

This is the first of McKay’s two Aston DB3S’, the story of which is told here, rather than repeat myself; https://primotipo.com/2017/09/28/david-mckays-aston-martin-db3ss/ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

David McKay was noted throughout his long career as a racer, entrant and journalist for his dapper appearance- one can only assume therefore that the ‘bombay bloomer’ trouser suit was the de-rigueur clobber for the man-about-town of the day. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A good time was had by all by the look- and yes, the bones of the ‘Chevvy’, a favourite night spot of Melbourne revellers for generations are still in St Kilda Road albeit, inevitably, the building is essentially an apartment complex these days. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(L Richards) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A Zephyr, an old beast an interviewer and a couple of lovelies, must be the prize giving part of proceedings I guess… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Photo Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Laurie Richards Studio 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Brian Hatton’s beautiful cutaway rendering of the 1927 Grand Prix Fiat 806… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat’s impact on Grand Prix racing in the twenties was hugely significant, then they departed almost as quickly as they arrived in 1924, reappeared in 1927 with this radical 806, won and then disappeared from GP racing forever inclusive of destroying this jewel of a car, it’s parts and drawings… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

One of the greatest of grand marques FIAT (Fiat after 1906) – ‘Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino’ was founded on 11 July 1899, the marque first appears on the race winners lists in 1900 with Felice Nazzaro’s win in the 28 April Torino-Asti race the beginning of many aboard a Fiat 6HP. Vincenzo Lancia won again later that year in the Padua-Vicenza-Bassano-Treviso-Padua event on a simllar car. Other winning marques that year included Panhard, Riker Electric, Peugeot, Benz, Daimler, Mors and Bolide. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lets have a brief look at Fiat’s contribution in the Edwardian Age of automotive leviathans through to its defining GP cars of the early to mid twenties- the 801, 804 and 805, the circumstances of their sudden withdrawal from racing after the 1924 French GP and the equally surprising re-appearance on the grid at Monza in 1927 only to tease the enthusiasts of the day before ‘bolting out the Monza garage door’ for the very last time but for a few races in the US in 1925. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1901 Nazzaro won the Piombino-Grosseto event in the FIAT 12HP Corsa four-cylinder engine car owned by Conte Camillo Della Gherardesca setting a record of 1:49.54 despite the local tram service being maintained whilst the contest took place! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(GA Oliver) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Two races in 1904 fell to Lancia in the 75HP- the Susa-Montecenisio Hillclimb, and the Coppa Florio, by 1905 the FIAT four cylinder machine was of 16.2 litres in capacity. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 1905 Fiat (above) whilst ‘built in admiration of the Mercedes’ wrote Cecil Clutton, incorporated a major engineering advance by placing both inlet and exhaust valves in a hemispherical cylinder head, the valves, inclined at 45 degrees were operated by pushrods. The 180 x 160mm bore/stroke engine developed 120bhp at no more than 1100rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat won three events in 1907, the second Grand Prix racing season- noting that the 1906 French GP is considered the first grand prix, when Felice Nazzaro won Targa (28/40HP) the Kaiserpreis (‘Taunus’ 8 litre) and the six and three quarters of an hour ACF French GP in the 135hp 16.2 litre car at an average speed of 70.5 miles per hour- very much making him ‘Driver of The Year’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1908 Nazzaro won the Coppa Florio in Bologna and Louis Wagner the American Grand Prize at Savannah, Georgia. Aftrr the abstention of manufacturers from racing in 1909 and 1910, in 1911 Victor Hemery won the French Grand Prix at Le Mans and David Bruce Brown the American Grand Prize- Caleb Bragg won the American race again in 1913 aboard a 10 litre 120hp Fiat S74. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Aldo Weilschott, Fiat 2C starting, DNF accident, French GP 1906. Ferenc Scisz won in a Renault (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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1907 Fiat 130HP- Felice Nazzaro’s winning 1907 French GP machine (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Vincenzo Lancia, Fiat 50HP, Targa Florio 1908- 2nd after unnecessarily pitting for tyres whilst in the lead, Vincenzo Trucco won in an Isotta Fraschini (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

One hundred years ago two races were held in 1919 of stature, the Indianapolis 500 and Targa Florio but the very first post-war race in Europe was a beach sprint at Fano Island on Denmark’s west coast on 24 August- Nando Minoia won aboard a Fiat Tipo S57A, a 4.9 litre SOHC, two valve machine first raced (S57 4.5 litre) in the 1914 French GP. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Europe was devastated by the impacts of The Great War and was slowly starting the process of rebuilding as peace settled. For a while at least. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

With remarkable pace, given the circumstances, international motor racing recovered. In 1920 the AIACR, the ‘Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus’, the precursor to the FIA, announced a GP formula of 3 litres in capacity and 1.4 litres for Voiturettes. That years events included the Formula Libre Circuito de Mugello and Voiturette GP de’l UMF and Coupe des Voiturettes at Le Mans as well as Indy and Targa. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1921 the French and Italian GP’s were run for the first time post-war and won by Jimmy Murphy’s Duesenberg and Jules Goux’ Ballot 3L respectively. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Importantly the 3 litre straight-eight Fiat 801, credited to Carlo Cavalli and Giulio Cesare Cappa was designed and raced that season, the last year of the 3 litre Formula. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

There was also a 3 litre four cylinder variant the 801/401, the eight cylinder engine, conceived by Tranquillo Zerbi was designated Tipo 801/402, in most texts the 801 appellation is applied without distinguishing between the different engine/chassis, but in some cases the eight-cylinder machine is named the 802. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The correct designations are the four cylinder Tipo 401 powered Tipo 801 and eight-cylinder Tipo 402 powered 802. ‘Cavalli and Cappa were assisted by Vincenzo Bertarione and Vittorio Jano…as designers’ wrote Robert Dick who makes no mention of Zerbi’s involvement. The risk in these exercises of ‘information assemblage’ like mine, not going back to source documents, is repeating the mistakes/interpretations of others… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Both four and eight cyinder engines were composed of steel cylinders with welded up ports, the cylinders were enclosed by sheet steel jackets. This practice was pioneered by Mercedes and used extensively by Fiat in its wartime aviation engines. The DOHC eight had a bore/stroke of 65 x 112mm, used two large valves at an included angle of 96 degrees per cylinder, ten roller main bearings and roller big ends. The dry-sumped engine produced between 115-120bhp @ 4400-4600rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The machine had a four speed gearbox driving a torque tube rear end. Fiat’s Aviazzione department, under Chief Engineer Rosatelli, was responsible for the cars shape which included time in the wind tunnel, the car was distinctive for its clean underside from front to back and flat-sided, wedge-shaped tapering tail. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The lighter 810 kg Tipo 401 four cylinder car was designed with the Targa Florio and lower speed courses in mind whilst the more potent 920kg Tipo 402 eight was tasked for more open road courses and speedways. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whilst the cars were not successful upon debut in the September 1921 Italian GP on a 17.3km course at Brescia due to a variety of problems, Bordino set the fastest race lap and led until a puncture and then oil pump failure stopped him, Fiat were emboldened to proceed down the design path they explored with this short-lived, due to the formula change, path. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ugo Sivocci, Fiat 802 3 litre straight-eight, Italian GP, Brescia 1921. DNF after 18 laps engine, Jules Goux won in a Ballot 3L (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lets pause for a moment at look at the array of management and engineering talent before proceeding further with the cars. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Giovanni Agnelli was one of the nine initial investors in Fiat in 1899, a Board Member and was appointed head of the company circa 1906, by which time they had built 1149 cars, the company was publicly listed on the Milan stock exchange in this period. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The combination of automotive and aviation products within the group attracted and allowed assembly of an amazing array of engineering talent, these folks developed a reputation from the start for creativity and innovation, under the Chief of the Technical Office, Guido Fornaca. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fornaca is often described as Chief Engineer but his talent seems more policy direction of a commercial type with the company technical direction and leadership provided by Carlo Cavalli ‘trained as a lawyer but inclined to engineering’. Extremely versatile he applied himself to the first shaft-drive cars, aero, airship and marine engines, tractors and racing cars. He was appointed as Technical Head of Fiat in 1919 having joined in 1905. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Design engineers included Luigi Bazzi, Walter Becchia, Vincenzo Bertarione, Giulio Cesare Cappa, Alberto Massimino and Tranquillo Zerbi (who replaced Cavalli as technical head upon his retirement due to ill-health in 1928) ‘while in charge of racing car preparation and team administration was Vittorio Jano’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Within the early twenties all but Cavalli and Zerbi left- Bertarione and Becchia to Sunbeam-Tabot-Darracq, Bazzi and Jano to Alfa Romeo, Cappa left and so too Massimino. The brain drain was not applied exclusively to racing cars- Jano and Bazzi at Ferrari, Massimino to Maserati, Becchia to Lago Talbot and Bertarione to Hotchkiss examples. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It was with this amazingly talented, well led group of men that Fiat designed, built and raced very influential racing cars, the 801/802, 803, 804 and 805 and as a consequence set the trend for racing car design generally in the immediate future and specifically in terms of engine characteristics through until 1951. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Felice Nazzaro at 19 was both Senator Giovanni Agnelli’s chauffeur and a factory racer- both here in a 1901 Fiat 8 (CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Felice Nazzaro on the way to winning the 1922 French GP, Strasbourg aboard a Fiat 804 2 litre six (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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The Fiat 804 lineup in France, 1922- #17 the ill-fated Biagio Nazzaro, #4 Felice Nazzaro and Pietro Bordino 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Biagio Nazzaro and #15 Louis Zborowski, Aston Martin GP Strasbourg French GP 1922 (LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Bordino, Strasbourg 1922, Fiat 804 (CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1922 the GP formula changed to an engine capacity limit of 2 litres and a weight of no less than 650kg- the Fiat 804, a new six cylinder two valve machine was effectively two cylinders lopped of the end of the 3 litre straight-eight. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Credit for this design is attributed to Cappa, Cavalli, Bertarione and Becchia under the direction of Fornaca with Vittorio Jano in charge of preparation according to Cyril Posthumus. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The general specifications of the engine- timing gears at the back, cylinders built from steel forgings with welded on water jackets, wide angle valves and all roller bearing engine was all familiar to the previous types ‘and the choice of six cylinders seems primarily to have been dictated by convenience and not by belief in the superiority of this number as compared to eight cylinders in a line’ Lawrence Pomeroy wrote. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat retained the 65mm bore of the 3 litre engine and reduced the stroke from 112 to 100mm thereby giving a capacity a smidge under the 2 litre limit. The engines developed about 92bhp @ 4500rpm fed by a single Fiat updraught carburettor set low on the offside, sparks were provided by a Scintilla magneto. Power was transmitted by a multi-disc clutch to a four speed gearbox attached to the engine, for the first time in racing Fiat used an enclosed prop-shaft which transmitted its power to the rear axle fabricated from light steel pressings. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The compact chassis turned inwards at the rear ro follow the lines of the tail, Cappa fixed upon a tubular front axle given the stresses imposed by the cars brakes which were servo assisted aluminium drums. Hartford friction shocks were used. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat’s aviation team again shaped the body, with the mechanics seat sharply staggered back by about 8 inches, Fiat riveted the exhaust collector to the body, thus using siad item to stiffen the latter, the dimensions of the car were very small- wheelbase 250cm, track 120cm, and the weight at 660kg was close to the miniumum required by the regs. Pirelli tyres were specified af 760 x 90 at the front and 765 x 105 at the rear. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The Fiat immediately outdated all its contemporaries’ wrote Posthumus putting the impact of the car with precision. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 804’s won both the blue riband 1922 events- Felice Nazzaro took the French GP at Strasbourg and Pietro Bordino the Italian GP at brand new Monza- the stunning autodromo in the park of the Villa Reale was completed in 110 days between May and August 1922. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Nazzaro’s win at Strasbourg was bitter/sweet in that his nephew Biagio Nazzaro lost his life when his 804 crashed after the failure of a thin gauge pressed metal welded axle flange at the wheel end, losing the wheel causing the promising young driver to crash to his death. Bordino’s car lost a wheel too but he was able to bring the car to a safe halt, Felice’s rear tyres were changed as a precaution, the great driver learned of Biagio’s death after the race. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

There were six other GP’s plus Targa and the Tourist Trophy that 1922 season. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Into 1923 there were still just the two Grands Epreuves- this time won by Henry Segrave’s Sunbeam and Carlo Salamano’s Fiat 805- the French and Italian/European GP’s respectively. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lets focus on Fiat for a moment and the exit of talent to the opposition, it is one of the reasons proffered by observers as the reason Agnelli ‘pulled the pin’ on racing after the 1924 French GP. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Luigi Bazzi had been enticed from Fiat to Alfa by Enzo Ferrari after a difference of opinion with his boss, Fornaca after the 1923 French GP at Tours- the new Fiat 805’s Type 405 supercharged 2 litre (60 x 87.5mm) 130bhp @ 5500 rpm straight-eight engine’s Wittig vane type blower was unscreened which caused the ingestion of roadside detritus and failure. Bazzi, its said, remonstrated with the boss over this. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tipo 404 2 litre six cross section. In similar fashion to Mercedes the cylinders were built up from steel forgings with welded on water jackets (Motorsport) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Carlo Salamano’s 805 straight-eight s/c, Tours 1923 DNF engine (Fiat en GP) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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1923 Sunbeam GP 2 litre straight-eight Fiat clone (Motorsport) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat’s 1923 Tipo 805 was of course derivative of the cars which went before. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The block was still composed of steel cylinders grouped in two blocks of four with a bore/stroke of 60 x 87.5mm. The two piece crank ran in nine roller bearings with the diameter of the crank pins and main journals increased from 40 to 44mm from Tipo 404 to 405, reflective of the increased stresses of the supercharged motor. The conrods were of chrome nickel steel shortened to 165mm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The big advance in the design was incorporation of a Wittig vane type blower which was mounted to the nose of the crank running at engine speed and blew compressed air into a single Memini carb- the beautiful motor produced 135bhp @ 5500rpm and was surprisingly lighter than the Tipo 404 six- 170kg for the oldie and 170kg for the 1923 motor. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At 262cm the wheelbase was a bit longer than the 804 whereas the track was the same at 120cm, the total weight was 700kg versus the 660kg of the 1922 car. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 2 July French GP was on a triangular course near Tours- 35 laps of a 23km for a total of 799km, Fiat entered three 805’s for Bordino, Salamano and Enrico Giaccone with riding mechanics Bruno, Ferretti and Carignano. Pietro had his eye in having done a few laps in a 2 litre 804- the new cars rumbled in by truck via the Alps and arrived on 20 June. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino did the quickest practice lap of 9 min 56 seconds and romped into the lead at the start and after 5 laps was ahead of Kenelm Lee Guinness Sunbeam ‘Green Fiat’… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Sunbeam boss Louis Coatalen had dispensed with the services of Ernest Henry given the lack of speed of his 2 litre four-cylinder car the year before and employed Vincenzo Bertarione (Bertarione was happy to join the company after his request for a pay rise was denied, he brought with him Walter Cecchia for good measure) for whom he designed and built a ‘Fiat clone’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Working in both Wolverhampton and Suresnes the pair designed and built a car which was almost identical to the 1922 Fiat 804 except that 2mm was added to the bore and 6mm taken from the stroke. The exhaust valve was made larger than the inlets, the valve angle reduced from the Tipo 404’s 102 degrees to 96 and the gearbox had three rather than four speeds but the car was ‘very Fiat like’ the single Solex carbed engine developed circa 108bhp @ 5000rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Kenelm Lee Guinness, Sunbeam GP 2 litre straight-eight, 1923 French GP, Tours (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Rene Thomas, Delage 2LCV leads Bordino, Fiat 805 from pole, then #2 Kenelm Lee Guiness Sunbeam #3 Albert Guyot Rolland-Pilain and the #6 Ernest Friderich Bugatti T32 ‘Tank’, Tours French GP 1923 (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Salamano sets off from the pits, 805, DNF engine (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Back to Tours- The road surface broke up though, and as a consequence on lap 8 a stone wrecked the crankcase of Pietro’s Fiat, when KLG pitted Giaccone and Salamano took first and second. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Giaccone pitted on lap 17 for fuel, plugs and tyres- he stopped again for attention to the Memini carburettor but the 805 refused to start and was retired with a broken exhaust valve. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

On lap 33 Salamano ground to a halt one kilometre from the pits, mechanic Ferretti ran to the pits for fuel but the 805 did not restart- Henry Segrave and Albert Divo were first and second for Sunbeam- or Fiat depending upon your perspective of design parentage… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lets focus the exit of talent from Fiat to the opposition for a bit, it is one of the reasons proffered by observers as the catalyst for Agnelli ‘pulling the pin’ on racing after the 1924 French GP. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Its said that Luigi Bazzi was enticed from Fiat to Alfa Romeo by Enzo Ferrari after a difference of opinion between Luigi and his boss, Guido Fornaca at the conclusion of the 1923 French GP at Tours- the new Fiat engine’s Wittig vane type blower was unscreened which caused the ingestion of roadside detritus and failure. Bazzi, its said, remonstrated with the boss over this. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At Monza, the Italian Grand Prix was held on 9 September, the Wittig blowers had been replaced by Roots type instruments, the engine now gave about 146bhp @ 5500rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The cars again showed their true speed and on this occasion, their endurance- Bordino led to half distance, a somewhat herculean effort as he broke his arm in practice and drove the race single-handed with the mechanic changing gear. It was a huge mind management tour de force as the crash that broke his arm the day before killed his riding mechanic, Giaccone. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino was forced to retire by virtue of exhaustion whereupon Carlo Salamano took the lead and won at a speed of 91.6mph from Nazzaro and an unblown Miller driven by Jimmy Murphy third. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Pomeroy wrote that ‘it was the first race won by a supercharged car, and since that time (he was writing in November 1942) only one International GP has been won by an un-supercharged type, except on occasions when supercharging has been proscribed by the regulations.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

After the Fiat 805’s success at the 1923 Italian GP at Monza ‘In all significant respects Fiat had fixed the type of racing car for the next ten years: and not least important of their contribution was the use of the supercharger…and thereafter supercharged cars were exclusively successful in Grands Prix of major standing’ Leonard Setright wrote. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Most of you will recall Froilan Gonzalez’ victory in the 1951 British Grand Prix at Silverstone when the normally aspirated 4.5 litre Ferrari 375 triumphed over the hitherto dominant Alfa Romeo Alfetta 159, the latest in a long line of supercharged GP winners begat by the 1923 Fiat 805. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

1922 Gran Premio Vetturette, Monza, three of the four Fiat 803’s in shot- #23 is Carlo Salamano’s. Engine Tipo 403 1.5-four normally aspirated (supercharged in 1923)  (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In fact whilst the 805 usually gets the twin accolades of first win by a supercharged car and first Grand Prix win so equipped, in more recent times those records are accorded the Fiat 803. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

This car, powered by a normally aspirated 1.5 litre engine won the 375 mile Italian Small Car race at Monza in late 1922. In 1923, by then powered by a Tipo 403 1.5 litre, DOHC, Wittig-blown four cylinder engine an 803 won the 29 June 1923 Voiturette Grand Prix at Brescia, Alessandro Cagno was the driver. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

As a consequence we now say the 803 was the first car to win an event supercharged, and the first to win a Grand Prix so powered, both achievements took place at Brescia on 29 June with Cagno the driver. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The first supercharged car to win a Grand Epreuve was the Fiat 805 raced by Carlo Salamano at Monza on 9 September 1923. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Rather than get sidetracked now, more details on the little 803 are provided in the ‘Etcetera’ section towards this pieces end. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The other significant achievement by Fiat and its band of designers, engineers, mechanics and drivers between 1921 to 1923 was to ‘institutionalise’ the DOHC, two-valve, supercharged engine approach as orthodoxy for a good many years. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ernest Henry’s DOHC, four valve mantra was established in the 1912 and 1913 Peugeot’s as most of you well know- here, only a decade later it was challenged and turned over in part. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The twin-overhead cam bit survived with the four valve layout de rigour from the time Cosworth Engineering adopted it in the Ford Cosworth DFV- and the FVA four which appeared a little earlier. Coventry Climax and Ferrari experimented towards the end of the 1.5 litre formula in their mid-sixties V8 and flat-twelve but the path was far from clear ‘BC’- ‘Before Cosworth’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jano, Antonio Ascari, Alfa Corse team and Alfa Romeo P2 2 litre straight-eight s/c at Monza during his winning 1924 Italian GP weekend (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Ascari on the way to winning the 1925 Belgian GP at Spa, Alfa Romeo P2 (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Fiat 805 raced on into 1924, revised to give 145bhp @ 5500rpm, so too did the Green Fiat Sunbeam, now supercharged to give circa 138bhp but both cars had a rival from Portello. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Alfa Romeo P2 design, construction and development was supervised by Vittorio Jano, another Fiat departee whose exit to Alfa Romeo was advised by Bazzi and implemented by Enzo Ferrari. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Its supercharged straight-eight was assembled in blocks of two rather than the four of the Fiat to avoid thermal distortion. Bore/stroke was 61 x 85mm, it had a two piece crank which ran in ten bronze caged roller bearings and big ends in two piece rollers. The twin-cams were driven by a train of spur gears off the back of the engine, each camshaft ran in ten roller bearings and operated two 35.5mm valves per cylinder which were inclined at 52 degrees to the cylinder axis. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jano brought all of his Fiat experience to bare but there was plenty of refinement, one example was the use of three concentric valve springs, a weak pint in the Fiat which could not exceed 5500rpm and used to break a lot of them in races of 800km. The Alfa sprngs were higher and of larger section wire resulting in lighter spring loading- and a rev limit of 6500rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fed by a single Memini carb it produced 134bhp @ 5200rpm when it first appeared at Monza on 4 June, and won, at Cremona, driven by Antonio Ascari partnered by Luigi Bazzi on 9 June 1924. The P2 power output was less than the Tipo 805 eight Jano left behind but of course rather more would come from it and whole families of engines by Jano’s hand at Alfa… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alfa Romeo P2- Louis Wagners 4th placed car from the #14 Dario Resta Sunbeam ‘flagged off’ in 10th France 1924 (LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Lyon prior to the start of the 1924 French GP. Cesare Pastore Fiat 805 first in the team line up 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Onesino Marchieso, Fiat 805 2 litre S8 s/c (LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Back into the fray, Felice Nazzaro, Fiat 805, it paid for the driver and mechanic to be at the compact end of the human sprectrum (LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Pietro Bordino, Fiat 805, DNF brakes (LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Bordino in the US in 1925, Fiat 805, where though folks? (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino crashed his 805 in practice at Lyon for the French Grand Prix, the car was trucked back to Turin for repair. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Four Fiat’s started the 3 August race crewed by Nazzaro/Carignano, Bodino/Bruno, Pastore/Mauro and Marchisio/Lorenzo. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino led between laps 4 and 10 before being forced out with failing brakes, Nazzaro had the same affliction, he too withdrew. Onesimo Marchisio suffered engine trouble and Cesare Pastore left the road to end a miserable Fiat weekend. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Worse was that the Jano penned P2 driven by Giuseppe Campari won, ex-Fiat engineer Bertarione’s ‘Green Fiat’ Sunbeam GP was the quicker car but had problems with its Bosch magneto. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alfa Romeo won again at Monza, on this occasion Alberto Ascari drove the winning P2. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The number of events in Europe started to ‘explode’ with seventeen Grand Epreuves and Grands’ Prix in addition to Targa- that year, coincidentally, Enzo Ferrari won three of these events at Savio, Ravenna and Polesine, Rovigo in an Alfa RLSS and the Coppa Acerbo, Pescara in an RLTF. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The racing history of the Fiat 805’s finished in the United States. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

One chassis was rebodied as a monoposto, Bordino contested a 250 miler at Culver City in December 1924 starting from pole, and again in March 1925 for sixth, another race of the same distance at Charlotte in May for DNF rear axle and the Indy 500 in which he was tenth, the winning car was Peter DePaulo’s Duesenberg. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alfa Romeo forged ahead for in the coming years whilst Fiat withdrew from motor racing as the company focused its energies in the air rather than on the road. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lets have a brief look at that without getting completely side-tracked. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Macchi Castoldi M.C.72, the worlds fastest piston-powered seaplane in 1931 at Lake Garda. Powered by two of Zerbi’s Fiat AS-6 V12’s coupled in tandem. The engines were connected by double reduction gears and concentric shafts to two contrarotating duralumin propellers. These were good for 2800hp or 3100 in short bursts (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bill Boddy sheets home the blame for Fiat’s motor racing withdrawal at Benito Mussolini’s door. He saw the promotional value of racing, like Hitler, but also wanted victory in the Schneider Cup, contested by the fastest float-planes on the planet. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Engineer Tarquilo Zerbi was therefore tasked to develop winning aero engines rather than Fiat’s next GP contender. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1920 and 1921 in Venice the Italian Macchi’s won the cup albeit in 1920 no other nation entered and in 1921 they finished first to third noting that the French entry did not start. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1926 at Hampton Roads, in the US, Major de Barnardi’s Mario Castoldi designed Macchi M39 won- the low wing monoplane was powered by Tranquillo Zerbi’s 882 horsepower Fiat A.S.2 liquid-cooled V12, he  took first place with an average speed of 246.497mph despite having to climb to 600 feet to cool his overheating engine. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It’s said that soon after crossing the line the exultant pilot sent a telegram to Mussolini announcing ‘Your orders to win at all costs have been carried out’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Two days later de Bernardi used another of the aircraft to achieve a new world speed record of 258.497mph over a 3km course at Hampton Downs. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It wasn’t so flash for ones favourite, short, well dressed Italian Fascist after that however. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Macchi M52 in Venice, Schneider Cup 1927. Powered by Fiat high compression AS3 1000hp V24 engine’s (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In the 1927 Venice event all three Macchi’s retired, British Flt Lt Webster won in a Supermarine S5 Napier Lion, in 1929 the contest, bi-annual by then went to a Supermarine S6 Rolls Royce R-type, Flt Officer Waghorn was the pilot at Calshott- the Macchi by then was powered by a 1000hp Fiat AS-3 engine. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Worthy of mention, to say the least, is the 1931 Macchi Castoldi M.C.72, the worlds fastest piston-engined seaplane. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It was powered by two of Zerbi’s Fiat AS-6 supercharged V12’s coupled in tandem resulting in a 50 litre 24 cylinder engine. The two motors, mounted back to back were connected by double reduction gears and concentric shafts to two contrarotating duralumin propellors. These were good for 2800hp or 3100hp in short bursts. The plane took the Air Speed Record in 1934 at 440.681mph. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Five aircraft were to be built for the 1931 Schneider, three were completed but the first crashed, killing the pilot, Giovanni Monti. The Italians petitioned for the race to be postponed but the British refused, effectively eliminating both Italy and France- whose entry was not ready either. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Sectional view of the opposed piston two-stroke Fiat Tipo 451 engine, ‘scrappy’ but still worth including 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Meanwhile, back in Grand Prix racing… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1925 Alfa Romeo’s P2 was the dominant GP car taking wins at Spa and Monza in the hands of Antonio Ascari and Gastone Brilli-Peri- the other non-Indy Grand Epreuvewas won by a Delage 2LCV shared by Robert Benoist and Albert Divo at Montlhery. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At the seasons end, having won the World Championship, Alfa Corse withdrew from racing leaving the way clear for Bugatti’s T39 2 litre straight-eight in 1926. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jules Goux won at Miramas, France, and Lasarte San Sebastian/European GP with Louis Chauvel the winner at Monza- all races won by Bugatti T39’s. The exception was the British GP at Brooklands which was taken by a Delage 15 S8 shared by Robert Senechal and Louis Wagner. Bugatti won the World Manufacturers Championship. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Meanwhile back in Turin, amongst his aviation work Tranquilo Zerbi amused himself with two racing car projects for the 1926-1927 1.5 litre GP formula. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The first, the Tipo 451, designed by Zerbi with the assistance of Giuseppe Sola and Scipone Treves was a two-stroke opposed piston six (52 x 58.5mm bore/stroke) with geared crankshafts. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Roots provided the blower, whilst extensively bench tested to around 152bhp the engines consumption of fuel was matched only by its appetite for pistons. The metallurgy of the time simply could not cope with the enormous heat produced on the exhaust side so the motor never found its way into a car. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

His ‘more conservative’ four-stroke offering did, however. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Pietro Bordino and riding mechanic during the 1922 French GP meeting, Fiat 804 2 litre six (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat’s return to elite level racing was as impactful as its designs had been several years before and was perhaps born of Agnelli’s simple desire to redress the balance- assert just who was the most innovative, successful motor car manufacturer of the day. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The engineers were tasked to lead the project and came up with revolutionary approaches in terms of chassis, engine and riding mechanic- or rather lack thereof. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Riding mechanics were banned in Grand Prix racing from the start of 1925, in 1927 two seat cars still required two seats but single-seaters were allowed provided the seat was at least 80cm wide and 25cm high- the Fiat engineers very much minimised and optimised the space. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The thinking extended to the chassis in that the team decided to broaden the distance between the two longitudinal members to allow the engine to be mounted lower by placing the engine in the middle of the lumps of steel rather than on top of them- the car was noticeably lower and narrower than its rivals. The steering wheel was flattened top and bottom to provide the driver with the requisite space to control the machine. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Type 806 frame had a wheelbase of 240cm and a track of 130cm, the front semi-elliptic springs slid between rollers rather than shackles at their outer ends. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat 806 cutaway drawing (bitmodeller.com) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Zerbi’s Tipo Fiat 406 engine was one of extraordinary extravagance of expression and innovation. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

An amazing piece of engineering, it was a twelve-cylinder unit comprised of two inline-sixes mounted side by side on a common crankcase with the cranks geared together. The banks of exhaust valves were placed on the outer flanks of the cylinder heads whilst the inlets were adjacent and operable by a single camshaft with twelve lobes. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The cranks were built up using ‘Hirth principles of crankpins mating with webs by radial serrationsand locked together by throughbolts’ LJKS wrote. Their were eight main-bearings of plain journal type- a departure for Fiat who had hitherto used rollers, a tradition they established. Connecting rods were one-piece with plain bearings, three camshafts and a single Roots blower. All up weight of the engine was 170kg to which was attached a four speed gearbox. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The quest was piston area- the bore was 50mm and stroke 63mm, at the time this was a lower bore/stroke ratio than only the Bugatti T39. Fiat achieved fitting larger valves into smaller cylinders. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(Setright) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whilst Setright asserts the ‘Type 406 engine could run happily run at 8000 rev/min’ at which it gave about 175bhp (187bhp @8500), it seems that state of happiness was not for prolonged periods as testing by Bordino at Monza in the summer of 1927 showed. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Mind you, the car was fast- reportedly four seconds a lap quicker at Monza than the 1925 lap record held by Peter Kreis. Boddy wrote that development work on aero engines impeded progress on the new GP car too so the thing clearly had huge potential. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The low, slender monoposto weighed 700kg dry and was, on paper, the most powerful and fastest car built to the 1.5 litre formula. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In the meantime the 1927 season was well underway with the Delage 15 S-8 proving very competitive with an early win in the GP de l’Ouverture at Monthlery in mid-March and then a championship win at the same circuit in early July. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At the end of the month he won again, this time at Lasarte near San Sebastian, the site of the Spanish GP which that year was one of five Grand Epreuves. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

As the European GP at Monza drew closer, Hans Etzrodt wrote that Fiat suddenly withdrew their entry from the race, despite assuring the organisers they would compete if the event were postponed from 4 to 18 September. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The reason given for their withdrawal was supposed tyre problems but it was assumed the new Fiats were not yet ready- that is they were not sufficiently developed to complete a GP of 500km in distance. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

As a consequence of Fiat’s concern about the experimental engine’s life- in fact it is said Agnelli himself intervened, whilst the ‘big boys’ contested the 500km European Grand Prix (also the Italian GP) at Monza on 4 September Bordino raced in the 50km Milan GP support event winning his rain soaked heat at 92.88mph and a similarly sodden final at 94.57mph from Giuseppe Campari’s aged 2 litre Alfa Romeo P2. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The victory was not without pain as an engine failed in practice requiring an ‘all nighter’ to have the sole 806 chassis race-ready. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The feature race, poorly supported with only six starters, was won again by Robert Benoist’s Delage 15 1.5 S8, from Giuseppe Morandi, OM 8C GP 1.5 S8 and the Cooper-Miller Special 1.5 S8 shared by Earl Cooper and Peter Kreis. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Manufacturers World Championship was effectively decided after this race in favour of Delage as neither Miller or Duesenberg could best their points advantage by winning the remaining championship event, the British GP on 1 October. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino, Fiat 806, Monza (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Alfonso Zampieri Amilcar 1.1 S6, Bordino Fiat 806 1.5 12, Emilio Materassi Bugatti T35C 2.0 S8, Nino Cirio Bugatti T37A 1.5 S4, Abele Clerici Salmson 1.1, Peter Kreis Cooper Miller Spl 1.5 S8, Giuseppe Campari, Alfa Romeo P2 2.0 S8, Aymo Maggi Bugatti T35C 2.0 S8 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Felice Nazzaro, who was the starter, talking to Bordino on the Milan GP heat 2 grid- Fiat 806. #14 is Robert Serboli, Ciribili 12/16 and #12 Nino Cirio, Bugatti T37A. Bordino won from Cirio and Serboli  (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A full team of 806’s was entered for the RAC GP at Brooklands with Nazzaro, Bordino and Salamano nominated as drivers but the cars did not appear, Schneider Trophy priorities were cited as the reason for the no-show. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

And with that Fiat withdrew completely from GP racing…finally to reappear as owners of Ferrari in 1969. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

There are a variety of theories as to the reasons for Fiats withdrawal from racing whilst noting Boddy’s observations about a focus on aircraft racing earlier. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Dick Ploeg in his review of Sebastien de Coulanges ‘Fiat en Grand Prix’ in velocetoday.com attributes Giovanni Agnelli’s sudden withdrawal to the loss of too many of his star drivers- Evasio Lampiano, Biagio Nazzaro, Enrico Giaccone, Ugo Sivocci and Onesimo Marchisio had all been killed. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The death of Pietro Bordino testing a Bugatti seems to have been the last straw, and with that he ordered the destruction of all FIAT racing cars by the end of the 1927 season. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Cyril Posthumus wrote in ‘The Roaring Twenties’ ‘Benoist in the 1500 Delage had entered for the Milan Grand Prix but elected not to run. That way Delage avoided possible defeat. Only one car was actually built, and legend, unconfirmed, has it that Fiat chief Agnelli, returning from a long American tour, was furious at the work being put into the racing car at a time when the economic recession was already being felt, and ordered it to be broken up, together with all spares and patterns…’ Note that Fiat constructed a factory in Poughkeepsie, New York in 1910 so Agnelli’s knowledge of economic conditions in a key market would have been very much current. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Doug Nye on ‘The Nostalgia Forum’ in 2003 wrote that ‘…I was schooled by Cyril Posthumus (my editor at “Motor Racing” magazine in the mid-sixties) to understand that Agnelli pulled out of racing primarily because he was outraged at the manner in which Bertarione had gone off to Sunbeam and produced a Fiat in green paint which won in France at Fiat’s expense, and Becchia went to Talbot and performed similarly and above all when Jano and Bazzi went to Alfa Romeo and really kicked the coal bucket all over Fiat’s lounge carpet…each of these engineers having been- in Agnelli’s view- expensively Fiat trained.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Doug Nye, again, adds to the theses in his ‘Motor Racing Mavericks’. He wrote, ‘In Fiats experimental shop the prototype 806 lay under wraps until the new year, and on 14 January Guido Fornaca- Fiat’s very pro-motor racing managing director died. As a new regime took over under Agnelli so racing fell from favour, and then came the inexplicable order to destroy the last Grand Prix car, to destroy its engines and all existing parts, and even its detail drawings. This orgy of destruction spelled the end to Fiat’s noble Grand Prix career, and their ultimate racing car just became so much molten metal, bubbling in a cauldron in a Fiat foundry.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A variety of historians, a variety of views and perhaps all are partially true- the sum total a decision by Agnelli to withdraw from racing. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bordino, Fiat 806, Monza lovely impressionist piece (P Codognato) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At this point Setright’s observations about the state of Grand Prix racing are interesting. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘This final abstention of Fiat from racing at the end of 1927 marked the beginning of a period in which, from the engineering point of view, Grand Prix racing went into a period of decline, so that in the next six years only one development of any technical value- the transmission of the 1932 type B Alfa Romeo- caused any stir amid the general stagnation.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The period was also one in which the administration of the sport fell into disorder, the governing body finding itself powerless to control the active participants. Indeed it was this very dissention that contributed to the obstruction of technical progress.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Whether paradoxically or as a direct consequence of this, the sport enjoyed a rise in popularity ‘qua’ sport, and the frequency in which races were held increased markedly in 1928 and 1929. In the first of these years it had been intended that a new set of regulations would supplant the 1 1/2 litre formula which, in its brief two years of life, had demonstrated fairly conclusively that any attempt to limit increases in performance by imposing more severe limitations on engine size would only lead to intensive development of more complex and highly tuned engines so that racing would not become necessarily any slower, nor essentially any safer, but inexorably more costly.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘It was therefore proposed that engine capacity should be unrestricted, but that it should be related to a sliding scale of minimum weights ranging from 550-750kg for the empty vehicle, and that races should be over a distance of at least 600km.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In reality what actually happened was races run to Formula Libre from 1928 to 1934 when the 750kg formula started and a period of both innovation and intensive development of existing paradigms set in motion by the departed Fiat… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(Antique Automobile) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tipo 406 Engine Detail… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

There is not a heap of information about this engine or the car which carried it given the short life of all of the constituent parts, so I have reproduced the material about the motor published in the January 1951 issue of Motorsport. The writer, Bill Boddy, credits ‘Motor Italia’ as the source and ‘Antique Automobile’ for the translation. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The bore and stroke were 50mm by 63mm and the cylinder structure as before with a single crankcase for each row of three blocks of two. The inclined overhead valves were of 30mm overall, 27mm face diameter and had a lift of 7mm. Each had three guided springs. Valve operation was by three overhead camshafts, the centre one actuating the inlet valves of each bank, the pouter ones the exhaust valves, via fingers in each instance as in the other FIAT engines.The camshafts, running in plain bearings, were driven from the rear of the crankshaft, via Oldham couplings, by one very large and five small spur gears on anti-friction bearings.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘A Roots supercharger was mounted centrally at the front of the engine and driven from the right-hand crankshaft by a pinion meshing with one of the actual rotor gears via a multi-plate clutch. Three pinions united the two crankshafts, which were of built up type by Hirth, running each in four plain bearings. Normal plain big ends were used. The main and big end journals were 40mm in diameter, the former 30mm long, except for the front bearing, which was 32mm long, the latter 41mm. the connecting rods were 5.118 inches long, or over 2 times stroke.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The pistons were again supported by their rings, of which there were two per groove, in three grooves per piston; 18mm sparking plugs extended well into the hemispherical conbustion chambers. The oil pump, at the back of the engine, ran at less than engine speed.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Vaglienti had a hand in the design of this remarkable engine. It weighed 381 lb. and the model 806 car in which it was installed turned the scales at just over 13 cwt. Maximum speed quoted as 149mph. The engine developed 173bhp at 7500rpm and 187bhp at 8500rpm, figures that are truly remarkable. A test in July 1027 shows, shows 160bhp, at 8000rpm at a manifold pressure of 12.52psi, the temperature of the compressed mix 162 degrees fahrenheit (72 degrees C)’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘This was an experimental engine and it is confidently stated that the aforementioned 187bhp, equal to a power/weight ratio of over 1hp per Kg, was subsequently attained. Compared with the present day 1 1/2 litre engine with two-stage supercharging which gives 300-400bhp on special fuels, the output of this 1927 twelve cylinder FIAT unit still ranks as exceedingly noteworthy’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Same Monza shot as above but all tidied up with a Fascist or three in attendance (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Etcetera… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat’s first factory at Corso Dante, Turin in 1902. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The first Fiat to participate in low level competition was the 1901 8HP road machine but it was quickly replaced by the 12HP four-cylinder car in the same year, both cars are shown in the photo above of the 1901 Giro d’Italia Automobile. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 8HP in front has a tube radiator whereas the four cylinder behind is fitted with a honeycomb unit and was Fiat’s first purpose built racer- Count Carlo Biscaretti di Ruffia was the driver. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Gordon Bennett Cup started in 1900, it was run until 1905 when the Automobile Club of France, international race organisers themselves, formed their own championship, the first for Grand Prix cars. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In the fifth Cup race in 1904 Vincenzo Lancia (above) won the Brescia-Cremona and Mantua-Brescia sections, the latter at an amazing 71.8mph in his big 75HP Corsa and for this won the Italian Cup, Graham Gauld wrote. The outright winner was Leon Thery in a Richard-Brasier. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alessandro Cagno (tenth) in front of his 75HP Gordon Bennett Fiat- five were built. Wonderful atmosphere of the times, Event held on the Homburg Circuit, four laps of a 79 1/2 mile course through the Taunus Forest near Bad Homburg, Germany in June 1904. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Felice Nazzaro’s great win (above) in the 1907 Targa Florio, teammate Vincenzo Lancia followed his home, they both raced Fiat 28-40 Corsa- 7.3 litre eight cylinder machines ‘with two four cylinder engines in two pairs’ wrote Graham Gauld. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Emile Salmson after winning the 1907 Winter Cup- 322 miles from Gothenburg to Stockholm, over 23 1/2 hours over snow and ice coveered roads,  Fiat 60HP. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Cagno at the wheel of a 1914 Fiat S57/14B Corsa. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Post World War One Italy re-entered motorsport with the 50.9km Parma-Poggio di Berceto hillclimb in October 1919. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The factory entered a 1914 S57A/14B Corsa they had raced at Lyons that year but fitted with an enlarged 4.8 litre engine. When they withdrew Antonio Ascari (above) acquired the car and won the race, beginning the family legend. Another legend got underway in thatsame event- Enzo Ferrari contested his first race in the same event finishing fifth in class aboard a CMN 2.3 litre car. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Three weeks later Ascari won again in the Coppa della Consuma, a 16km hillclimb east of Florence, he then contested Targa, he led after 31km but crashed out at Caltavuturo after 58km, overturning and landing in a ditch. Enzo Ferrari was there too- in an Isotta Fraschini, he also retired. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Carlo Salamano in a Fiat 803 1.5 litre S-4 unsupercahrged, 1922 Gran Premio d’Italia Vetturette (CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

You probably did a number count earlier on and wondered what had become of the Tipo 803- indeed there was such a car. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Quite a significant one given its credits of first supercharged formula car win and first to win a GP. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

During 1922 design on the new Voiturrette got underway, the chassis was similar to the other race Fiats of the period with front springs passing through the axle. Initially the Tipo 403 engine was a 65 x 112mm bore/stroke normally aspirated twin-cam, two valve four which produced 60bhp. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

So engined, a team of cars entered the late 1922 Italian Small Car Race at Monza, Bordino won from Giaccone, Lampiano and Salamano. These 1.5 litre road racers were the fastest cars of their type in the world at the time and almost as quick as their 2 litre brothers. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A further development of the car was to incorporate a Wittig supercharger into the specification, in this 80bhp form the 1.5 litre, supercharged Tipo 403 four cylinder engined machine raced in two events in 1923. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The photo above shows the grid of the ‘Third Gran Premio delle Vette’ or 1923 GP Voiturette held at Brescia on 29 June 1923. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 522km race, 30 laps of a 17.4km course, was won by the Alessandro Cagno’s Fiat 803 from Renzo Lenti, Bugatti T22 and Alete Marconcini in a Chiribiri 12/16. Please let me know if you can identify the cars/drivers. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Two 803’s also contested the October 1923 JCC 200 mile race at Brooklands, both Salamano and Malcolm Campbell failed to finish. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Fiat 804 cockpit during the 1922 French GP weekend. Plenty of instruments to keep the mechanic occupied and not a lot of space. A clock is an unusual fitment in a modern GP car. Fuel tap at far left, four speed ‘box. Wonderful. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Enrico Giaccone Fiat 805 during the 1923 French GP, Tours. DNF engine after finishing 32 of 35 laps. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Carlo Salamano refuels the body whilst his 805 is attended to during the 1923 Italian GP at Monza, a race he won. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(CSF) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Pietro Bordino with the 805 monoposto in the United States in 1925, circuit unknown but possibly Indianapolis. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Fiat 806 cutaway drawing (Blueprints) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Art and Photo Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Brian Hatton, Giulio Betti, britmodeller.com, Blueprints, ‘CSF’- Centro Storico Fiat, George A Oliver, Plinio Codognato 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bibliography… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The Grand Prix’ LJK Setright, Motorsport January 1951, Dick Ploeg article in VeloceToday.com published 14 December 2011, Hans Etzrodt race reports of the GP D’Europa and GP Milano on kolumbus.fi, ‘Motor Racing Mavericks’ Doug Nye, ‘The Roaring Twenties’ Cyril Posthumus, ‘Aviation History: Schneider Trophy Race’ Historynet.com, ‘Auto Racing Comes of Age’ Robert Dick, ‘Racing Car Evolution Part 3 1922-1925’ Laurence Pomeroy Motorsport November 1942, ‘The Racing Car Development and Design’ Cecil Clutton, Cyril Posthumus and Denis Jenkinson 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(GA Oliver) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 2 litre Fiat 804 straight-eight raced by Felice Nazzaro to victory in the 1922 French Grand Prix at Strasbourg. ‘With its low, compact build and six cylinder, roller-bearing engine, it set new design fashions’ wrote Clutton, Posthumus and Jenkinson. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The beautiful drawing of an equally attractive racing car is by George A Oliver. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(VC Browne) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ken Wharton, BRM P15 V16, Ardmore during the 1954 Lady Wigram Trophy… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alfred Owen started what became a long commitment to race his BRM’s in Australasia to further the Owen Organisations commercial interests with a trip by the stupendous, stunning and thoroughly nutty P15 V16 to New Zealand in 1954. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Its fair to say the car underperformed as it usually did, but the impact it made on all who saw and heard the marvellous machine at both Ardmore for the NZ GP and Wigram has endured for far longer than a more reliable but less memorable beast. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(VC Browne) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 1954 New Zealand International Grand Prix was the second in the history of the race, the first was won by local, John McMillan’s Ford V8 engined Jackson Special in 1950. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Kiwi organisers leapt over their Australian neighbours across the ditch in attracting an international field to their Formula Libre race including Wharton, Peter Whitehead’s Ferrari 125, Horace Gould in a Cooper Mk23 Bristol as well as Jack Brabham’s similar car, Tony Gaze, HWM Alta, Stan Jones in Maybach 1- the eventual winner, Lex Davison’s ex-Moss/Gaze HWM and others. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Wharton had the race won in P15 chassis ‘2’ but suffered complete front brake failure- vaporised brake fluid streamed from the front brake cylinders coming down the main straight so Wharton slowed and came into the pits. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Repairs were impossible so the front brake pipes were disconnected with Stan Jones in Maybach 1 winning the race, and subsequent protests about lap-scoring. Stan had more than his share of those post-race contests over the years but he won this one, perhaps at Gould’s expense. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Wharton was second ‘…in what must have been one of the greatest drives of his career to bring the BRM home and to complete the longest race in the cars history’ wrote Doug Nye- Tony Gaze was third, Horace Gould fourth, Ron Roycroft fifth in an Alfa Romeo P3 and Jack Brabham sixth. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Wharton’s problems were caused by a bit of circuit grit lodging in one of the calipers preventing a piston returning fully and causing the brakes to overheat through constant friction, eventually popping off a brake hose union and releasing fluid onto the scorching disc. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CAN) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At Wigram (above) Wharton again started from pole from Peter Whitehead’s Ferrari, Tony Gaze’s HWM Alta and Fred Zambucka in a pre-war Maserati 8CM. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whitehead won from Gaze and Wharton, then John McMillan in an Alfa Romeo Tipo B the first local home. Wharton bagged the fastest lap and lap record- as he had at Ardmore. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The BRM had a fresh engine installed between the meetings the car exceeding 150mph on the back straight- shrieking and bellowing in the most audio-erotic fashion in all of motor racing. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Wharton more or less had the race under control until he had to pit around lap 42 and took on a gallon of oil, the car eventually quit short of the finish line, Wharton pushed it across the line home for third place’ wrote Bob Homewood. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The long-distance venture had not proved to be the prestigious demonstration Owen Racing Organisation had hoped…The car was shipped home on the SS Karamea…Ken Wharton flew home via Hawaii…while (mechanic) Gordon Newman decided that New Zealand was such a pleasant country he eventually settled there’ Doug Nye wrote in ‘BRM 1’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(BRM 1) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ken Wharton pushed the big, beefy BRM a quarter of a mile over the line just as fourth placed man McMillan’s Alfa Romeo P3 commenced its last lap, encouraged by the BRM mechanics. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(B Homewood) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Gold dust- a Lap Chart from Bob Homewood’s collection ‘…from my BRM in NZ stuff, I make no claim that the pencil lap times are correct’ he quips. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whilst the Mk2 P15 returned to the UK the team would return many times to Australasia, on the next occasion with a P25 for Ron Flockhart in 1959, shown below at Wigram- he won the prestigious Lady Wigram Trophy from Brabham and McLaren’s Cooper T45 Climaxes that day, a story for another time… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(CAN) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

VC Browne & Son, Classic Auto News, Bob Homewood Collection, Winton Bristow via Roger Dowding, ‘BRM 1’ Doug Nye, sergent.com 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Etcetera… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(BRM 1) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jack and Ken at Ardmore. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Brabham in the cap looks across as Wharton sets off for some screaming but sonorous 1.5 litre V16 supercharged practice laps, Cooper T23 Bristol ‘Redex Spl’ looking suitably modest alongside its more aristocratic but far less successful countryman. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(BRM 1) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Lotsa plugs and lotsa plug changes…Newman and Southcott set to it, which of the two airfield circuits is unclear. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(W Bristow) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Roger Dowding wrote ‘…sketch by Winton Bristow…I have about eight of them, some finished some not (love to see ’em!) but interesting cars, I have Win’s notes too. Win was a car enthusiast…’. Luvvit! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Pity the long distance travelling race mechanic in 1954, read Nye’s account of Gordon Newman and Willie Southcott’s trip from Lincolnshire to the other end of the world in December 1953. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

’…the adventure began at 8am in Bourne, when they caught the bus to Peterborough. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

This was followed by a train to King’s Cross, London to report to KLM’s Sloane Street office at noon, a bus to Heathrow and then a 5pm flight to Amsterdam, thence to Auckland via Sydney, Australia. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

They had a worldwide Letter of Credit with them, value £130, comprising 50% of 15 weeks wages (£60), expenses at £3 a week (£45) and an extra £25 for contingencies. The NZ GP was…run on January 9 and…Wigram…in the South Island on February 7 with sundry exhibition dates in between.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

No rest for the wicked… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The mighty supercharged 1.5 litre V16 engine (Vic Berris) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece: Wharton, Ardmore 1954- not exactly a light car, just ask Ken… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Kleinig, not Klienig by the way… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Many of you know I love the language of yesteryear racing reports, so the ‘National Advocate’ Bathurst 8 October report of the 7 October New South Wales Grand Prix is reproduced in full. In the manner of the day the reporters name is not identified, which is a shame as he or she has done a mighty fine job- its all ‘as was’ other than car descriptions where I have been a bit more fulsome with model designations. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The article is a fluke in that I was researching a piece on Frank Kleinig and came upon a batch of staggering photographs recently uploaded by the State Library of New South Wales- they are truly wonderful. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Taken by the staff of ‘Pix’ magazine, a weekly some of you may remember, it’s the first time the photos have been used in high resolution, when published way back they would have been in ‘half-tones’. The racing shots are great but in addition there are ‘people pictures’ of the type important to a magazine such as ‘Pix’ but which a racing snapper generally would not take, these are amazing in terms of conveying the overall vibe and feel of the meeting and times more generally. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Digital scoreboard linked to yer iPhone via the Internet thingy (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Najar and Nind at the start, MacLachlan is looking pretty relaxed sans helmet, they were off the same handicap of either 7 or 15 minutes depending upon the source (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Here goes, and remember this event is run to Formula Libre and as a Handicap… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Fortunately the racing was not marred by any serious accidents. The only accident occurred during the running of the first race, the under 1500cc Handicap when the young Victorian driver, Wal Feltham crashed at ‘The Quarry’. He was thrown heavily and sustained a fractured collarbone. His car, an MG P Type was badly damaged and he had a miraculous escape. He just managed to jump from the car a few yards before it hurtled over a hillside to crash about 80 feet to be completely wrecked. Feltham was admitted to the district hospital for treament. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It was certainly an afternoon of thrilling races and the scene will long be remembered. The racing circuit throughout the whole length was packed with struggling humanity. All sorts of motor vehicles were there from the first model Ford to the post-war type. As a matter of fact the aggregation of cars was perhaps the greatest ever seen locally and every inch of parking space was taken up. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

There were 23 starters in the classic race and it was remarkably free from anything in the nature of a serious accident. Skids there were plenty on the hairpin and ‘S’ bends and though at times the situation looked both ugly and dangerous, the drivers always managed to gain control on their cars at the moment when the wide eyed spectators expected them to overturn.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Mount Panorama Grandstand 1946 style (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bill MacLachlan’s MG TB Monoposto- twin SU fed Xpag, three bearing four cylinder 1355cc engine (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘It was on the famous ‘S’ bend, which had been especially noted as one of the most dangerous spots and at which the trials over the weekend that several drivers came to grief, that DA MacLachlan of Sydney had a thrilling experience. His car went into a skid and struck the sandbags on the side with such force that it was hurled across the track to strike the other side and narrowly miss the legs of two girls who were seated on top of the ledge. The car narrowly missed being hurled over the side overlooking a long drop of many feet. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Speaking after the race, the winner, Alf Najar, said that it was a hard race and that fortunately he had a good passage and his car travelled smoothly all the way. He mentioned that the last four winners of the Grand Prix at Bathurst had been tuned and prepared by Rex Marshall of Sydney and to whom he owed much for his success. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

He also praised the Bathurst Council for the attention and care given to the track and added that it was because of the work done on the ‘S’ bend during yesterday morning that the drivers were able to negotiate with comparitive safety. The track, he said, was in good order even though it was not capable of holding cars travelling at over 100 miles an hour for any distance. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Speaking generally, yesterday’s race was one of the best of its kind ever run on any Australian circuit. The cars used were all pre-war models and consequently could not be regarded as fast and durable as the later models. In these circumstances the speed attained by the cars was right up to standard.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A couple of chargers coming down the mountain. Ted Gray in the ex-Mrs JAS Jones Alfa Romeo 6C 1750 Zagato by then flathead Ford V8 powered from Kleinigs Hudson Special. Ted Gray was quick from his earliest outings on Victorian Speedways and evolved into one of Australia’s elite drivers in Tornados 1 and 2- with  a little more luck he could have won the 1958 AGP at Bathurst aboard the big, booming Tornado 2 Chev (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

John Crouch, Delahaye 135CS ahead of Alby Johnson’s MG TC. Crouch won the 1948 AGP at Leyburn aboard the beautiful Delahaye, perhaps one of John Snow’s most astute racing car purchases in terms of suitability for Australian racing of the day if not in outright pace but reliability (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘High speeds were witnessed in the ‘Con-Rod Straight’ from the bottom of the S-bend to the left-angle turn (Murrays) into the starting straight (Pit Straight). 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The officials had chosen a section of the straight solely for the purpose of checking high speeds and this was known as the Flying Quarter. The fastest speed attained was 119mph by John Crouch in the French Delahaye 135CS. His time was taken during three runs and each time he got progressively better. His speeds were 105, 108 and 119mph. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jack Murray with the powerful Ford-Bugatti was second with 109mph. This car was exceedingly fast but the driver did not seem inclined to take risks. Rather than that he let it out at top speed while climbing the hills and this made up a considerable amount of ground. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Frank Kleinig also attained 109mph over the distance and brought gasps from the crowd by his masterly handling of the car which is really unique in Australian motoring history. It is made up of parts from several other cars. It takes off with a great leaping surge forward and picks up very fast. It travels like a rocket with no spluttering or back-firing usually associated with high powered racing cars. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The weather was almost perfect with no wind to carry the dust high into the air and into the crowd. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Sunglasses seem to have come into fashion for the summer and a number of girls who tend to forget to bring their sunglasses and hats were noticed wearing mens heavy glasses and sun helmets, while the poor boyfriend stood in the sun and sweltered.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Pre race pit straight scene with Frank Kleinig’s Hudson Eight Special front and centre, Delahaye alongside? (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Grand Prix… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Racing keenly for 25 laps during which time they presented many thrills to the public, Alf Najar (NSW) defeated John Nind (NSW) for major honours in the NSW Grand Prix yesterday. AV Johnson gained third place and defeated FW Gray of Victoria for that position. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Najar and Nind were both driving MG Series TB of 1250cc and 1268cc respectively, started off the 15 minute mark, with DA MacLachlan in a MG Series TA of 1355cc. There has been a friendly rivalry between these three men for many years because of each others good driving and yesterday’s performance demonstated just how good these men are. MacLachlan came only ninth in the race, being handicapped by a faulty cooling system. He was forced to continually call at the pits for water. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At times Najar and Nind fought for minutes at a time trying to wrestle the lead from one another. However, Najar seemed to have the better of the going, for he finished about 600 yards in front of Nind. A remarkable point in the clash between them at the end of the distance- 100 miles is that Najar gained one second in every 3.84 miles. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

One of the first to greet Najar after his win of the Grand Prix was his sister, who dashed over to the car as it stopped, threw her arms around him, kissed him and being so elated with the victory, burst into tears.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Good boy! Alf Najar being congratulated by his mother and sisters after his big win. Looks like a beer to me (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Najar returns to the paddock after his win, MG TB Monoposto (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Johnson, who gained third place took the lead from L Phillips of Victoria, driving a 747cc Austin, when the latter stopped during lap seven owing to engine trouble. Johnson fought grimly to hold his lead, and did so until the 16th lap when Najar took it from him. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

During the next time around he lost second place to Nind, but managed to hold off Gray, of Wangaratta, in a Ford V8 Alfa Romeo, long enough to finish the course. It was a remarkable feat on Johnson’s part, considering that the MG TC he was driving was an almost completely standard machine. He was equipped with lights, mudguards and all equipment to make it roadworthy. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

JE Murray, who finished fifth in a 3622cc Ford Bugatti, gained the honour of fastest time by clocking 1hr.26min.24sec. for the entire trip of 100 miles. He drove brilliantly throughout and the car gave him the minimum of trouble. Apart from winning fastest time, the car was also one of the best looking on the track.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Murray in the ex-Bill Thomson Bugatti T37A AGP winner, chassis ‘37358’ now Ford sidevalve V8 powered. This car and its adventures over its long racing life is a story in itself- still extant and in the process of restoration (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alec Mildren, Mildren Ford V8 Spl and Jack Nind MG TB Spl. Mildren of course became a champion driver, winner of the 1960 Gold Star and AGP at  Lowood aboard his Cooper T51 Maserati. Alec was off 13.36 minutes and DNF (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘A number of drivers were forced to pull out owing to mechanical trouble. Warwick Pratley, of Peel, one of Bathurst’s hopes, was forced to stop in the fourth lap of the second event- the over 1500cc handicap- after he had held the lead for two laps and looked to possess a chance of winning. Big-end trouble caused his withdrawal. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Norman Tipping, also of Bathurst in a Terraplane Six Special, was driving a most spectacular race, and was actually overhauling the leaders when the gear handle came loose in his hand as he was changing gear in the pit straight. The car pulled up some 100 yards beyond the pits. Tipping was proving a great crowd-pleaser with his spectacular cornering. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tipping’s car had exceeded all expectations as he had been in difficulty with his engine over the past week or so and there was some doubt as to whether he would start. The final tuning of the locally manufactured Terraplane was not complete until midnight on Sunday night.  However, the car was on the track in time and with his clean, confident driving raised the hopes of Bathurstians each time he passed, being the only local representative left in the race.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The great Frank Kleinig wearing a kidney belt working, as always, on his steed. This car started life as Wal McIntyre’s Miller 1.5 litre straight-8 engined Kirby Deering Special in 1936- an amalgam of MG Magna chassis, Mathis suspension and gearbox and much more. Fitted with a Hudson straight-8 prior to the 1938 AGP it was then named the Hudson Special or Kleinig Hudson Special, here in single carb format in a formidable machine the development of which never stopped. It’s still extant in Melbourne. Story on Kleinig completed and ready to upload soon (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Ron Ewing, Buick Spl. Built by Ewing and first raced at Bathurst in 1940, the clever car was a combination of Buick 8/40 straight-8 engine, Terraplane chassis and Lancia gearbox. Does it survive? (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Frank Kleinig, who was driving his own Hudson Eight Special, completed five laps and had to pull up halfway around the track with smoke pouring from his engine. For a moment, it was thought his car was on fire, but the trouble was in the clutch. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ron Ewing, who was expected to do well in his Buick Special only completed one lap in very poor time and stopped for the same reason as Kleinig. His mechanics had been working vigorously on the car and just made the starting line in time for the start of the big race. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ron Edgerton had only done four laps when he took his car, a Lycoming Special, powered by a Continental Beacon engine- out of the race with ignition trouble. It had been backfiring for a couple of laps and it was not surprising when his withdrawal was announced. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

One of the mystery cars of the race, a monoposto Jeep Special, driven by NJT Andrews, of NSW, did not do as well as expected, and finished in lap five with the engine emitting eruptive noises. Others who did not finish the race included RS Ward’s MG Series TA and W Conoulty’s Austin Comet, both cars were from NSW.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bill Conoulty makes final adjustments to his Austin 7 Comet before the off. The ex-motor cycle racer, the first to do 100mph on a bike in NSW it’s said, used this car as a test bed for many of the engines he developed, inclusive of an OHV design. At one stage his Sydney business employed over 40 people (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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John Crouch and his helpers ready the beautiful Delahaye 135CS sportscar, it’s chassis #47190. The car was famously barbequed in a trailer fire whilst Dick Bland and his guys were towing it back to Bathurst upon their return from the 1951 AGP meeting at Narrogin in Western Australia- it was rebuilt/reconstructed a couple of decades ago by Ian Polson and lives in splendid retirement in an American museum. I must get around to writing about John Crouch- a great driver, racing entrepreneur and administrator (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Results 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Support Races 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Under 1500cc Handicap was won by John Barraclough’s Bill Nunn owned MG TB 1250cc, the over 1500cc Handicap was taken by Kleinig’s Hudson Spl who ‘drove with such determination and daring that he had overtaken seven cars and was rapidly overhauling the leaders…during one of the Flying Quarters he was clocked at 108mph…Murray’s Ford Bugatti did one better and clocked 109mph over the same distance’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Grand Prix 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alf S Najar MG TB Monoposto 1250cc first in 1 hour 33 minutes 19 seconds, Jack P Nind MG TB Spl 1268cc second, Alby V Johnson MG TC 1250cc third, Ted Gray Ford V8 Alfa Romeo 3924cc fourth, J Murray MacKellar Special s/c (Bugatti T37A Ford) 3622cc fifth, Walter I Mathieson Jaguar SS100 2663cc sixth, John F Crouch Delahaye 135CS 3555cc seventh, Chas W Whatmore Ford V8 Spl 3917cc eighth and D ‘Bill’ A MacLachlan MG TA 1355cc. Fastest time, J Murray 1.26.24 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Belf Jones, Buick Special from MacLachlan’s MG TA Monoposto- does anybody know about the Buick Spl? (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Bill Murray, Hudson Spl, DNF after 23 laps, car prepared by Frank Kleinig, not sure if he built it? Alf Najar is credited with renaming Pit Corner ‘Murrays Corner’ after Bill collided with the hay bales. Came back and won the 1947 AGP here at Bathurst in a stripped MG TC (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alfred Najar… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Alf Najar arrived in Australia aged 8 years old with his parents and four sisters, the family hailed from Tripoli, Lebanon where his father had established a successful tailoring business. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

They settled in Sydney and soon established tailoring and dressmaking enterprises in Kingsford and Auburn, this evolved into a small manufacturing business when Alf joined his parents in 1936. Clearly they were profitable, Alf having the income to build and race a car. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The factory was taken over by the government during the war years to produce clothing for the military. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Apart from his NSW GP win Alf was sixth and second in the 1947 and 1948 AGP’s respectively and was the holder of many sprint and hillclimb records inclusive of the 1946 Australian Hillclimb Championship at Bathurst. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

He is also credited with starting the sport of water skiing in Australia together with ‘Gelignite’ Jack Murray, in 1948 becoming a foundation member of the Australian Water Ski Association. In a lifetime of involvement in sport he was a member of the All Australian Five-Man Skeet Team for 16 years and held Australian and New Zealand titles in clay target shooting. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

For many years he ran the family tailoring business including the acquisition of ‘Najar House’ in Campbell Street, Surry Hills- he and his wife retired in 1978 then trading and building property successfully. He died in 2015. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A couple of the Najar girls keeping an eye on big brother (SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Etcetera… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(S Dalton Collection) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(S Dalton Collection) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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AMS December 1946 (S Dalton Collection) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(B Williamson) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Cars pictured in the bucolic, rural, relaxed Mount Panorama paddock include #23, a mystery car!, with Hope Bartlett’s #10 MG TA Spl closeby. #31 is WD Feltham, MG P Type, #22 is Jack Nind’s MG TB Spl, the second #23 in the rear of the shot is Bill McLachlan’s MG TA Monoposto. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Monoposto Jeep’ or ‘The Andrews Special’… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Monoposto Jeep Special our intrepid reporter mentioned piqued my interest, and as he often does, my mate Stephen Dalton came to the rescue with this April 1947 AMS article which explains all about the car- it is an attractive machine, does it still exist? 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Its a bit tricky to read- I can manage by blowing it up with my trusty iPad, there is a precis of the salient bits below if you have insurmountable dramas. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(S Dalton Collection) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The car was designed and built by Gordon Stewart for Norman Andrews using many Lea Francis components as a base- chassis, front and rear axles and the gearbox. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The racers first meeting was the 1946 Bathurst event in which it was powered by a 2195cc Willys-Jeep engine which was immediately replaced by a circa 3.5 litre Austin OHV six which was modified in all the usual ways and fed by triple-Amal carbs to give over 130bhp. The Leaf gearbox was replaced by a Wilson pre-selector ‘box when the engine was swapped. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Semi elliptic springs were used front and back and Hartford shock absorbers, wheels were Rudge Whitworth wires and the body was formed in steel sheet. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

I am intrigued to know how it performed in the ensuing years- and its fate. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(S Dalton Collection) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

National Advocate Bathurst Tuesday 8 October 1946, State Library of New South Wales, article by Brian Caldersmith in the HSRCA magazine 16 December 2015, Stephen Dalton Collection- Australian Motor Sports, Bob Williamson Collection 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(SLNSW) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Flaggie’ 1946 Mount Panorama style, complete with suit, bowler hat and fag to calm the nerves… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Isn’t it a cracker of a shot? Somehow I doubt he has the athleticism of Glen Dix, Australia’s most celebrated practitioner of the flag waving art. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(B King) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Yes, there is such a place, and a good deal of carnage seems to have befallen this Nar Nar Goon race competitor… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It is a small hamlet of a little over one thousand people 65km east of Melbourne in Gippsland- the name is an Aboriginal expression meaning ‘native bear’ or ‘water rat’ the degree of certainty implied is hardly reassuring on a government website! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Light Car Club ‘ran a surprisingly successful race meeting on a nine furlong grass track at Nar Nar Goon, 40 miles from Melbourne on Sunday 23 November 1947’ MotorSport reported in its February 1948 issue. It covered both this meeting and the 1947 Australian Hillclimb Championship won by Arthur Wylie’s Ford A Model Special ‘Wyliecar’ at Rob Roy, 75km from Nar Nar Goon on 2 November. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Arthur Wylie in his Ford A Spl, ‘Wyliecar’ at Rob Roy, whether these two shots are during the 1947 Oz Title meeting I’m not sure (L Sims) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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(L Sims) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Owing to doubtful weather, practically no publicity was given to the Nar Nar Goon meeting, but about 3000 spectators turned up to see thirty competitors. At that time, the local population would have been tiny in an area focussed on timber growing, felling and milling. Ideal for motor racing really- out of harms way and the scrutiny of officialdom! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

I’m not suggesting the LCCA were ‘hackers’ in any way at all- they were for decades, lets say 70 or so years, one of the continuously premier motor racing clubs in Australia. At one time or other they owned or operated venues such as Rob Roy, Albert Park, Sandown, Balcombe, Ballarat Airfield and others, including the little known Nar Nar Goon. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It isn’t clear to me how many meetings were run at the villages racecourse but cursory research shows LCCA/Junior Car Club/Light Junior Car Club competitions dated back to at least April 1932 when it appears the owner of the course, a Mr Coombes, first gave consent for cars to use his horse racing facility. By November 1933 a range of cars from the pedestrian to Brescia Bugatti’s were being put to the test. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

On the wet grass many of the 1947 entrants had incidents during the time trials which preceded the races, ‘spinning with great abandon on one corner in particular’. No damage occurred and by race-time the track had dried out. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Arthur Wylie, racer and founder of Australian Motor Sports magazine at Nar Nar Goon in a Bugatti T37 ‘#37145’ (A Wylie via L Sims) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘It was decided to run (love the organisation on the fly, can you imagine that today?) four handicaps, each of two or three heats and a final. At first four competitors were on track at a time, but it was found six was safe, so some events were run with six starters. Finishes were close and spectators were treated to eighteen 5 lap events. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘The LCCA prides itself on organisation, at this meeting the average period between finishing one race and starting the next was less than five minutes’. Happy days indeed. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The LCCA should rightly be proud of its history of race organisation, I can attest to it as a competitor and spectator during the ‘glory years’ which all came crashing down as a consequence of the financially crippling burden of the two World Endurance Championship events the club ran very unsuccessfully in 1984 and 1985. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Sandown lived on of course thanks to the tenacity and entrepreneurship of racer Jon Davison but the LCCA sadly, was no more. A story for another time, not one I really want to tell when I think about it! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘Racing Ron’ Edgerton in his ex-Charlie East/Advanx Tyres Bugatti T37 ‘#37104’ at Nar Nar Goon (B King) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Etcetera… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Bibliography… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

MotorSport magazine February 1948, Trove, Leon Sims Collection, Bob King Collection, Arthur Wylie Collection 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Competitor names and cars folks? The leading car is the one which come to grief in the opening shot. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Ferrari 156 F1 1963, red Lotus Climax FPF and at left Lotus 18 Climax FPF and Lotus 33 Climax FWMV (M Bisset) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Ferrari 156/63 holding centre stage at the Musee National de l’Automobile, Mulhouse, France July 2019… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

I’ve never thought too much about the Ferraris between the 1961-2 156 and the 1964-5 158. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 156 went from World Champ in 1961 to World Chump the following year and then along came the ‘Aero-framed’ semi-monocoque 1.5 litre V8 engined 158 with which John Surtees won the 1964 championship title in a great year battling Jim Clark’s Lotus 33 Climax and Graham Hill’s BRM P261. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Not so fast… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The cars in between the ‘156’ and ‘158’ are the T56, 156, 156/63, 156 F1-63 and ‘Aero 156’ depending upon your source as to the name. Given the confusion, to be consistent throughout this piece I am referring to Forghieri’s 1963 156 spaceframe machine as ‘156/63’ and his later in 1963 156 semi-monocoque as ‘156 Aero’. Even Ferrari are confused- their formula1.ferrari.com site provides specifications for the Aero with a drawing of the spaceframe 156/63 so go figure… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In any event, it is the 156/63 which looked oh-so-sweet at Mulhouse and piqued my interest in the subject. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whilst still powered by the trusty Tipo 178 1.5 litre, twelve valve V6, by then Bosch direct fuel injected- well trumped by the British Coventry Climax FWMV and BRM P56 V8’s, the Mauro Forghieri designed chassis was a much nicer modern thingy than the 1961 156 which was ‘made’ by its engine and the lack of preparedness of its opposition. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Forghieri stepped up when others left during the Scuderia’s 1962 ‘Winter of Discontent Palace Coup’. His chassis solution was a neat multitubular spaceframe of small gauge tubes, an evolution of the existing V6 was bolted to a new six-speed gearbox with lightweight magnesium alloy Campagnolo wheels part of an attractive package. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Ludovico Scarfiotti, Ferrari 156/63 from Jim Clark at Zandvoort during the 1963 Dutch Grand Prix- the young Italian was 6th in his first championship GP, Jim won in his Lotus 25 Climax- the track at which this paradigm shifter first raced 12 months before. It is a lovely photo but I have included it to show the relative size and frontal area of the Ferrari challenger to the dominant car/driver combination of the day. Ferrari would of course bridge the gap with the 156 Aero which raced at Monza that September and the 158 Aero which followed- not to forget the 1512…(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Ferrari 156/63 cutaway, technical specifications as per text (Vic Berris) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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John Surtees on the way to a win, in the Karussell, Nürburgring 1963, Ferrari 156/63 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In 1963 specification the two-valve, DOHC V6 was fuel injected and gave a claimed 205bhp. Michael May worked hard to adapt Bosch direct injection to the motor, by the end of 1963 F1 was ‘fuel injected’ by Lucas and Bosch. There were still some downdraft Webers to be seen on customer V8’s but up front fuel injection had finally taken over. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The gearbox had six speeds, front suspension was the usual outboard fare of upper and lower wishbones and coil spring/shocks- at the rear the regime was again period typical- single upper link, a lower inverted wishbone and twin radius rods with coil spring/shocks and adjustable roll bars front and rear, rack and pinion steering and magnesium ally wheels too- the Borrani wires of the 156 were left behind.  Brakes were Dunlop disc, inboard at the rear. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Real progress was made too. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Only three of these 156/63 machines were built- ‘0001’, ‘0002’ and ‘0003’, Surtees achieved the best results of the four Ferrari drivers- Willy Mairesse, Ludovico Scarfiotti and Lorenzo Bandini were also on the squad that year. He won at the Nürburgring, was second at Silverstone, third at Zandvoort and fourth at Monaco. His points haul of 22 placed him fourth in the 1963 drivers championship behind Clark, Lotus 25 Climax, Hill G and Richie Ginther aboard BRM P57’s. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Surtees also won the non-championship GP del Mediterraneo at Enna in August from Peter Arundell’s works Lotus 25 Climax. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bandini, beautiful Ferrari 158 Aero during the 1964 Belgian GP, Nürburgring. DNF engine, race won by Clark’s Lotus 25 Climax (B Cahier) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Better was to come in 1964 of course with the ‘Aero semi-monocoque chassis’ 158 and 1512 but even there the venerable 156 V6 played an important role. With development of the V8 behind schedule, a 120 degree V6 was adapted to Forghieri’s new chassis to allow its debut at Monza in September 1963. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The chassis, christened ‘Aero’ by Ferrari was based on a simple un-triangulated tubular internal frame to which were riveted stress bearing aluminium skins. This hybrid monocoque was quite unlike that pioneered by Len Terry and Colin Chapman at Lotus but served Ferrari very well for many years to come. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

’Two parallel fuel tank pontoons, each of which was fabricated and riveted aircraft style over a sketchy framework of two tube longerons staggered slightly in the vertical plane’ wrote Doug Nye. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘These tubes doubled as water and oil feeds between engine and coolers. The completed pontoons were then united laterally throughout their length by a stressed floor panel with angle stiffening plates, and at each end were riveted to transverse bulkheads.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

‘That at the front was doubled to sandwich inboard coil spring damper units operated by top rocker arms like Lotus’s, while the entire hybrid monocoque terminated behind the cockpit in a hefty fabricated rear bulkhead.’ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Look carefully at the Aero chassis at Monza and you can see the rivet lines where the aluminium skin is attached to the tubes underneath, visible also is the ‘boom’ extension to the tub on this side to support the engine. Rags and things are a pest but you can see the twin-plugs and Bosch injection- the metering unit is between the Vee. Fuel tank forms the seat, note also the inboard Dunlop discs. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Ferrari 156 Aero cutaway. Not so easy to quickly pick the spaceframe 156 from the semi-monocoque Aero- easiest difference to pick after the chassis is top rocker front suspension on this car as against wishbones on the earlier 156 F1-63 racer (unattributed sadly but perhaps Cavara) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Aero front end detail at Monza 1963. Top rocker and hat of coil spring/Koni- note the bulkheads upon which the rocker pivots, water radiator/cap and oil tank behind, master cylinders for brakes times two and clutch, under these is the steering rack and arm attached to a cast magnesium upright. Mechanics do need nimble limbs and hands ideally the size of a Gynaecologist, do they not? 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

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Lorenzo at Monaco in 1964- 156 Aero, nice overhead shot shows the key elements of the car, DNF gearbox. Race won by Graham Hill’s BRM P261 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

What was radical at the time was that the design of the intended V8 and Flat-12 engines was such that their structures would form stress bearing components of the car rather than the engine being attached to pontoons/booms or an A-frame. That is the motors would bolt to the rear chassis bulkhead and accept suspension loads. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The notion of using the engine structurally to this point was rare- Vittorio Jano took this approach with the 2.5 litre, quad-cam V8 of his front-engined Lancia D50 in 1954. BRM would achieve it with ‘Big Bertha’- the 1966 BRM P83 H16, so too would the similarly engined Lotus 43 but Forghieri and the Ferrari team did so in 1964 with the Flat-12 Ferrari 1512- they never did persevere long enough with the crankcase/block design of the V8 to achieve the feat with the 158. Lets not forget that Jano was one of the consultants still retained by Ferrari during this period, this path was perhaps suggested by him to Forghieri and the design team.. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The new V8 engine was running late in its development in the summer of 1963, as related earlier, so the 120 degree V6 was adapted for the purpose to allow testing and racing of the Aero chassis. Support trusses were added to the rear of the chassis to carry the engine which was not designed to be a stressed member, although some references have it as ‘partially stressed’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Aero’s front and rear suspension was very much contemporary ‘standard British design practice’, something John Surtees brought with him to Ferrari- in Mauro Forghieri Surtees found a wonderful ally to bring the great marque quickly up to snuff. In Surtees’ short four wheel racing career he had Cooper, Lotus and Lola race and test experience, together with great mechanical understanding and interest he had clear views about what was needed for success, and was forthright in communicating same… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Bandini on his way to victory on the Zeltweg Airfield circuit, Ferrari 156 Aero in August 1964- he is passing Trevor Taylor’s abandoned BRP Mk1 BRM, broken suspension (unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The 156 Aero made its Monza debut that September and the cars raced on into 1964 in Bandini’s hands, as the definitive 158 V8 was made competitive and reliable by Surtees and Forghieri. When the 158 was race ready Lorenzo also drove it but the 156 was reasonably kind to him. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Whilst ‘Il Grande John’ won the German GP in a 158, Bandini popped the 156 on the outside of the front row and finished third- he went two better at Zeltweg winning the race run on a rough as guts broken concrete airfield surface as other cars, including Surtees’ 158 were shaken to bits! It was the last win for a V6 engine in F1 until the turbo-charged Renault V6’s a decade or so hence. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It was rather a nice last hurrah for a series of engines which had delivered so much for so long since 1957- and was adapted for the 3 litre Formula 246 F1 car for Bandini in 1966 and the Tasman 2.5 Formula for Chris Amon, Derek Bell and Graeme Lawrence when fitted in multiple different specifications to 246T chassis from 1968 to 1971… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Etcetera: Back to the 1963 Ferrari 156/63, the non-Aero design that is… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Giulio Borsari tops up the Ferrari 156/63 125 litre fuel tank, with a dose of Shell’s finest Avgas, at Monaco in 1963. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

What a marvellous shot and oh to have a pair of those overalls! 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It looks like Surtees car, #21, he was fourth in the race won by Graham Hill’s BRM P57. Note the leather bound steering wheel and chassis cockpit bracing tubes. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

What sort of Dunlop in 1963- R5 perhaps? 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(B Cahier) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Hill chasing Surtees at Monaco in 1963- Ferrari 156/63 and BRM P57 or P578 depending upon your preference. Graham won from Richie Ginther in the other Owen Racing Organisation entry from Bruce McLaren’s Cooper T66 Climax and then Surtees. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

They are such pretty little cars these 1.5 litre GP machines? Mighty fast of course. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Surtees 156 failed to finish with an inert fuel-pump, perhaps he is seeking to diagnose or rectify the problem- concentration not so easy on this high speed part of Reims. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Clark won from Tony Maggs and Graham Hill- Lotus 25 Climax, Cooper T66 Climax and BRM P61. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(LAT) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

At first glance I thought it was Surtees at the Nürburgring in 1963 but its 1964 aboard a Ferrari 158- he won the German GP in both years. Its a Cooper T73 Climax behind- either Bruce McLaren or Phil Hill. Surtees won from pole ahead of Graham Hill’s BRM P261…and Lorenzo Bandini in a Ferrari 156 Aero was third. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

A magnificent shot of great majesty, innit like? 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Getty Images, Sutton Images, LAT, Bernard Cahier, Ferrari website, grandprix.com, racing-reference.info, ‘The History of The Grand Prix Car’ Doug Nye 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(unattributed) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Pretty as a picture at Silverstone, British GP 1963- driver looks to sit quite far forward, or is it an optical trick? 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Surtees 156/63 amongst the Silverstone fields with perhaps not quite enough mumbo to really challenge Clark’s winning Lotus 25 Climax- the BRM duo of Graham Hill and Richie Ginther completed the V8 sandwich for John, in P56 V8 engined P57’s. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

  해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Antipodian enthusiasts can argue the toss but I think the 1968 Tasman was about as good as it ever got… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Here Clark, Amon and Hill- Lotus 49 Ford DFW, Ferrari Dino 246T and 49. Two Cosworth V8’s and a Maranello V6. There were a swag of Repco V8’s of different configurations, BRM V8’s and V12’s- Len Terry’s new P126 was blooded in the Tasman in advance of the F1 season, Alec Mildren’s Brabham BT23D Alfa Romeo using a 2.5 litre variant of the Tipo 33 sports prototype V8, plus cars using the good ole Coventry Climax four cylinder FPF. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

As good as it gets in terms of variety of cars and drivers- in addition to the fellas on the front row of the dry, preliminary, Saturday race we had Jack Brabham, Denny Hulme, Bruce McLaren (in NZ), Frank Gardner, Pedro Rodriguez, Piers Courage, Richard Attwood…apart from the local hotshots. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Clark and Hill raced 49’s ‘R2’ and ‘R1’ during their 1968 tour down south. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Hill had mainly raced ‘R1’ since the 49’s race debut at Zandvoort on 4 June 1967. He joined Team Lotus in Australia whereas Jim did the full eight weeks and had almost exclusively raced ‘R2’ from his first up win in the chassis amongst the Dutch dunes. Motors fitted for the Tasman were Cosworth’s 2.5 litre variant of the 3 litre Ford DFV dubbed ‘DFW’. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Jimmy has a tyre issue he is sorting with the Firestone man. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The fag packet Gold Leaf Players livery is new- the cars were green and gold at Pukekohe and Levin and red, white and gold at Wigram only a month or so before Longford, as shown in the Wigram front row photograph below. That’s Denny’s F2 Brabham BT23 Ford FVA behind Jim in the Longford pitlane. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(B Wilson) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Clark has won his last championship GP by this stage, the South African at Kyalami on New Years Day, 1 January 1968, he won at Sandown the week before Longford on 25 February taking the Australian Grand Prix, his last, from Chris in a ‘thriller-driller’ of a race which could have gone either way right to the finish line. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Racing’s tectonic plates shifted with his Lotus 48 Ford FVA F2 death in Hockenheim only months hence. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In a tour de force of leadership Graham Hill picked up Team Lotus lock, stock and barrel and drove the team forward as Colin Chapman regained his composure and focus after the death of his great colleague and friend. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

No seatbelt in Graham’s car above, there would be by seasons end. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

No wings either, there would be by mid-season, 1968 was a year of change in so many ways. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Wings here; https://primotipo.com/2015/07/12/wings-clipped-lotus-49-monaco-grand-prix-1969/, and in more detail, here; https://primotipo.com/2016/08/19/angle-on-the-dangle/ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Chris loads up in the Longford paddock. That’s Denny’s Brabham BT23 Ford FVA F2 atop the Alec Mildren Racing transporter behind (D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The Scuderia Ferrari presence, or more precisely Chris Amon’s single Ferrari 246T raced under his own banner raised enormous interest, the great Kiwi did not disappoint either- and of course came back the following year with a two car squad and won. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

In Australia we got a double 1968 whammy in that David McKay acquired one of the P4/Can-Am 350 Group 7 cars for Chris to drive in the sports car support races. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Frank Matich served it up to him big-time in one of his Matich SR3 Repco 4.4 litre V8’s, disappointingly Matich did not cross Bass Straight for this meeting so Chris set the fastest ever lap of Longford despite not being pushed by the oh-so-fast Sydneysider. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The gleaming Ferrari Can-Am 350 Scuderia Veloce raced all too briefly throughout Australia in 1968 by Chris Amon, and Bill Brown upon the Kiwis departure back to Italy and all points beyond. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Auto-erotica. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

With the 1967 Manufacturers Championship over Ferrari modified two of the P4’s, this car, chassis ‘0858’ and ‘0860’ to better compete in the Can-Am Championship and naming them ‘350 Can-Am’ to contest the prestigious series in their most important market. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

The cars were lightened considerably becoming curvaceous Spiders instead of even more curvaceous Coupes! Weight was reduced from 792Kg wet to 700Kg wet, engine capacity was increased to 4176cc raising the engines power to 480bhp @ 8500rpm. 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

It wasn’t enough to compete with the McLaren M6A Chevs of Bruce and Denny, that story is told in this article about the Ferrari P4/Can-Am 350 and ‘0858’ specifically; https://primotipo.com/2015/04/02/ferrari-p4canam-350-0858/ 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Credits… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Dennis Cooper, Historic Racing Car Club of Tasmania, Bruce Wilson 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Tailpiece: Look at the crowd… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

(D Cooper) 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Talk about missing out… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계

Finito… 해외축구중계사이트|nba매니아|mlb중계